CITADEL in the Digital Government Scenario. Part II - A look at the World and EU situation.

To actually assess how far are our PAs to realise the shift highlighted above, it is useful to compare the numerical indicators as provided by accredited sources.

Source: Huawei Global Connectivity Index 2018

Among the most reputed indicators there are:

The following figure provides a quick overview of the positioning of some EU Countries PAs according to some World Economic Forum CGI indicators (specifically: PA Performance, Efficiency PA Spending, Transparency of government policymaking, Burden of government regulation, Efficiency of legal framework). The Countries for which specific figures are reported in the following have been selected taking into account EU Countries of CITADEL partners (Belgium, Italy, Latvia, Spain) and EU Countries with more efficient PAs (Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Netherland, UK).

Figure 1. PAs relevant indicators for some EU Countries (Source: World Economic Forum, The Global Competitiveness Report 2017–2018)

The following table reports the actual numerical indicators depicted in the above figure.

Table 1. PAs relevant indicators for some EU Countries.

As can be seen, there are high variabilities among the different selected European Countries.The European situation is not the most advanced, as is clearly shown by the following figure where the best performant EU Countries (Germany and Finland) are compared to the worldwide best performant Countries.

Figure 2. PAs relevant indicators for best classified non-EU and EU Countries (Source: World Economic Forum, The Global Competitiveness Report 2017–2018)

As for the previous figure the following table reports the specific numerical values.Table 2. PAs relevant indicators for best classified non-EU and EU Countries.

The above World Economic Forum figures clearly demonstrates that Europe is currently not positioned at the top for PA related performances and that there is a clear need to quickly identify measures to reduce the gap with other Countries.These conclusions are further supported by the last Huawei Global Connectivity Index whose “Digital Economy heat map” is reported in the following figure.

Figure 3. GCI Digital Economy heap map (Source: Huawei Global Connectivity Index 2018)

The above figure highlights the three GCnI clusters:

  • Frontrunner: characterized by having a GCnI Score in the range 56-85. Frontrunner Countries are able to continually evolve their processes and capability to use new technologies to have a smarter and more efficient society. Frontrunner governments heavily, or will, use big data analytics to make better decisions, optimize operations and services, better understand stakeholders’ needs, and provide more effective and appropriate services and information;
  • Adopter: characterized by having a GCnI Score in the range of 35-55. This cluster collects Countries which can experience the biggest GDP growth from ICT adoption and focus on increasing deployment of new technologies to facilitate high-quality economic growth. Government in this cluster is digitising everything, is providing access to vast stores of cloud-based data, and trying to provide government related data to improve effective decision making;
  • Starter: have a GCnI Score between 20 and 34 and characterize nations in the early stage of ICT adoption to support their economies.  Government in starter nations are transforming their services through ICT to improve public safety, economy and scientific and technological innovation.

Figure 4 provides the GCnI scores and ranks for some EU Countries, while Figure 5 provides the figures for GCnI top ranked nations.

Figure 4. GCnI ranking and score for some EU Countries (Source: Huawei Global Connectivity Index 2018)

As evident from these figures, EU Countries are not among the top ranked nations and they can be considered essentially as adopters.

Figure 5. GCnI ranking and score for top ranked nations (Source: Huawei Global Connectivity Index 2018)

According to the GCnI 2018 report the Intelligent Connectivity will change the way government delivers services and meets its stakeholders’ mandate, thanks to the huge deployment of cloud solutions, big data, IoT and AI technologies focused on transforming the flow of information from government to citizens and on improving efficiency, management and service delivery. According to this report Intelligent Government could foster a worldwide economic growth of $2.9 trillion by 2025 if advanced predictive analysis based on cognitive computing, Al and deep learning will be used to understand and transform how public agencies and stakeholders synergically and effectively interact and interoperate.The EU DESI 2018 indicators further confirm that EU Countries still have to improve the effectiveness of their PAs, that there are relevant differences among them, even if the trends in these years are positive.Figure 6 provides the percentage of public administration interactions that can be performed completely online (the online service completion indicator), while Table 3 reports the correspondent values.

Figure 6. DESI online service completion indicator for some EU Countries (Source: EU DESI 2018)

Table 3. DESI online service completion indicator for some EU Countries (Source: EU DESI 2018)

The online service completion figures, especially for 2018, seem to be comfortable and seem to show a good situation for the selected Countries.

Unfortunately, the situation is not so promising as clearly shown by Figure 7 and Figure 8 (Table 4 and Table 5, as usual, provide the corresponding values).

Figure 7. DESI eGovernment Users indicator for some EU Countries (Source: EU DESI 2018)

With a few exceptions, Figure 7 clearly shows that the percentage of Internet users that actually use the PAs’ services is not so high and uniform. Additionally, as shown in Figure 8, the use of Internet to consume content is still quite low. Therefore, if we combine figures in Figure 7 and Figure 8 we can conclude that access to PAs internet services still is unsatisfactory.

Table 4. DESI eGovernment Users indicator for some EU Countries (Source: EU DESI 2018)

Figure 8. DESI Use of Internet to access content indicator for some EU Countries (Source: EU DESI 2018)

Table 5. DESI Use of Internet to access content indicator for some EU Countries (Source: EU DESI 2018)

As known the EU is well aware of the relevance that efficient and effective PAs have in assuring the quality of life of EU citizens and EU economic and social growth. Indeed, PAs modernisation is one of the key elements of the EU Digital Single Market strategy (https://ec.europa.eu/commission/priorities/digital-single-market_en). The Digital Single Market strategy, anyway, seems not sufficient to guarantee a rapid transformation of the EU PAs, as the figures provided above show. Indeed, the EU Commission recently has proposed the Digital Europe programme (http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-18-4043_en.htm) to foster the wide use of digital technologies across the economy and society to support the digital transformation of PAs and public services, their EU-wide interoperability and facilitate access to technology and knowhow for all businesses envisaging an additional specific investment of €1.3 billion in the coming years.